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Royal Navy: study War American Independence W.M.James
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THE BRITISH NAVY
IN ADVERSITY

A STUDY OF THE WAR
OF AMERICAN INDENDENCE
by
W. M. JAMES

First published 1926
by Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd., London
£30.00 + P & P

A blue cloth bound book with gilt lettering to spine and blind lettering to front board. Some shelf rubbing but generally tight and clean. Ex library; library stamps to back paste down and title page with library lable with numbers on front paste down. Signature on front fly. 459 pages with some foxing scattered throughout but page block clean, bright and tight. VERY GOOD condition.
Weight unwrapped 1 kilo.

Contents

I. INTRODUCTORY .
II. THE DISSIPATION OF A LEGACY
The Navy under Anson—Strategy—Tactics—Amphibious operations—Personnel—Saunders and Hawke as First Lords—Sandwich as First Lord—Dissipation and Corruption.

1762-1777

III. FROM PEACE TO WAR .
Stamp Act, 1765—Revenue Act, 1767—First movement of troops, 1768—` Boston Massacre,' 1770—Hutchinson letters, 1773—Tea Ships at Boston—First Congress, 1774 —Graves' difficulties—Lexington, 1775—Generals Howe, Burgoyne, and Clinton appointed—Bunker's Hill—George Washington appointed Commander - in - Chief — Graves relieved by Shuldham—American Operations against Canada—Montgomery and Benedict Arnold—Carleton's defence of Quebec.
IV. THE OPENING MOVES IN NORTH AMERICA, 1776 .
Howe evacuates Boston—Quebec relieved—The British operational plan—Influence of American naval forces— Operations of the Northern Force under Carleton—Battle for the Lake command—Operations of the Southern Force under Clinton—Repulse at Charleston—Operations of the Main Force under Howe—Battle at Long Island—Transfer of the Army by sea—Washington's retreat to New Jersey —Capture of Forts Lee and Washington—Washington's attack at Trenton—British retreat—Operation against Rhode Island.
V. THE DISJOINTED OPERATIONS OF 1777 IN NORTH AMERICA
The British operational plan—The muddle which led to disaster—Operations of the Northern Force under Burgoyne—St. Leger's diversionary force—Battle at Stillwater —Surrender at Saratoga—Operations of the Main Force under Howe—Transfer of the Army by sea to the Chesapeake—Battle at Brandywine Creek—Howe enters Philadelphia—Operations of New York force under Clinton— Advance up Hudson River.
VI. THE ENTRY OF FRANCE-1778 .
Renaissance of the French Navy—Choiseul, Sartine, Castries as Ministers of Marine—Fleurieu as ' Director of Plans '—Hoste's influence—Morogue's influence—The Ordinance of 1765—Evolutionary squadrons 1772, 1775, 1776 — Comparison between rival fleets — Geographical considerations—West Indies—Strategical considerations— Harbour and docking facilities.

1778

VII. CONJOINT NAVAL AND MILITARY OPERATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA .
D'Estaing sails for North America—Byron sails for North America—Clinton relieves Howe—British operational plan for 1778--British evacuation of Philadelphia—Lord Howe's defensive plan at New York—Arrival of D'Estaing—Fate of Byron's reinforcement—D'Estaing at Rhode IslandManceuvres of Howe and D'Estaing—The storm—Three single-ship actions after the storm—D'Estaing at Boston —Comments on the operations.
VIII. THE FIGHT FOR THE WEST INDIAN ISLANDS
- FIRST PHASE

French take Dominica—British attack St. Lucia—Arrival of D'Estaing—Barrington's defensive plan—D'Estaing's land attack—Comments.
IX. EUROPEAN WATERS
Keppel appointed Commander-in-Chief—His orders— Frigate action off the Lizard—Keppel sails from Portsmouth —Brest Fleet sails, D' Orvilliers in command—His orders— Battle of Ushant—Comments—Keppel's court martial— French convoy system—Paul Jones's operations.

1779

X. THE FIGHT FOR THE WEST INDIAN ISLANDS
- SECOND PHASE

De Grasse reinforces D'Estaing—French take St. Vincent --La Motte-Picquet reinforces D'Estaing—French take Grenada—Byron sails to its relief—Battle of Grenada— Comments.
XI. THE DISJOINTED OPERATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA
War declared against Spain—Operations of Campbell and Prevost in the Southern Colonies—Arrival of D'Estaing to co-operate with Lincoln—Failure of this co-operationD'Estaing sails for France—Minor operations of Main Force under Clinton—Collier relieves Penobscot—Operations in Central America—Luttrell and Dalrymple.
XII. EUROPEAN WATERS .
French attack on Channel Islands—French plans for invasion—Hardy as Commander-in-Chief—Sailing of the Grand Fleet—A dramatic moment—D'Orvilliers joins forces with Cordova--Their plan—The Armada enters the Channel—The change of plan—The Armada blown down Channel—The fleets in sight of one another—The collapse of a great enterprise—Comments.

1780

XIII. THE FIRST RELIEF OF GIBRALTAR
Rodney's appointment—Position at Gibraltar—Sailing of the relief force—Capture of Spanish merchant fleet— Battle off Cape St. Vincent—Defeat of Langara's squadron —Comments—Relief of the fortress.
XIV. THE FIGHT FOR THE WEST INDIAN ISLANDS
- THIRD PHASE
Arrival of De Guichen at Martinique—Arrival of Rodney at St. Lucia—The fleets put to sea—Battle of MartiniqueComments—Battle of St. Lucia Channel—CommentsArrival of Solano's reinforcement from Spain—De Guichen sails for France—Two battles between Cornwallis's squadron and French squadrons—The great hurricane— Comments on the third phase.
XV. CONJOINT OPERATIONS IN NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA
Operations under Clinton and Cornwallis against Southern colonies—Advance of Cornwallis—Battle at Rugeley Mills Gates' advance—Battle at Camden—Cornwallis checked —Operations of Main Force under Clinton—De Ternay arrives at Rhode Island—Rodney arrives at New York— Period of stagnation—Sailing of diversionary force under Leslie—Sailing of diversionary force under Arnold— Comments on these operations—Operations in Central America—Poison and Horatio Nelson at Nicaragua.
XVI. EUROPEAN WATERS .
Geary as Commander-in-Chief—Operations of the Grand Fleet—Franco-Spanish concentration—The Armed Neutrality—Relations with Holland—War declared against Holland—Efforts to stop war with Spain—Great Britain in a precarious position.

1781

XVII. THE FIGHT FOR THE WEST INDIAN ISLANDS- FOURTH PHASE .
British failure at St. Vincent—Hood's reinforcement arrives—Rodney takes St. Eustatius—The operations affected by the treasure found there—Hood ordered to intercept a French squactron—Arrival of de GrasseManceuvres of the fleets off Martinique—CommentsFrench failure at St. Lucia—French take Tobago—The fleets in sight of one another—De Grasse sails to the westward—Rodney sails for England—Hood sails to the North American coast—French retake St. Eustatius— Comments on the fourth phase.
XVIII. BRITISH DEFENSIVE IN NORTH AMERICA .
Des Touches sails from Newport—Arbuthnot sails from New York—The fleets meet—Battle of Cape HenryComments—Diversionary force under Phillips leaves New York—Cornwallis commences his march to the North—Battle at Cowpens—Battle at Guildford—Battle at Hobkirk's Hill—Loss of British posts in Carolina— Battle at Eutaw Springs—Cornwallis joins Arnold at Petersburg—British commanders at loggerheads—Hood arrives at New York—De Barras sails from Newport— Graves and Hood sail from New York—De Grasse arrives in the Chesapeake—Battle of the Chesapeake—Comments —Movements after the Battle—Cornwallis at Yorktown —The Capitulation—Hood sails for the West Indies— Comments on the campaign of 1781.
XIX. EUROPEAN WATERS .
French attack Jersey—Second relief of Gibraltar by Darby—Comments—La Motte-Picquet takes a valuable convoy—Franco-Spanish attack on Minorca—FrancoSpanish Armada in the Channel—Comments on the operations of the Main Fleets—Hyde-Parker sails with Baltic convoy—Battle of Dogger Bank—Comments—De Guichen sails from Brest—Kempenfelt takes several ships of convoy.
XX. THE FIGHT FOR THE WEST INDIAN ISLANDS—
FINAL PHASE

Change of Government—Rodney sails for the West Indies —French attack St. Kitts—Hood sails to its relief—Hood meets De Grasse—Battle at Basseterre—St. Kitts surrenders—Hood and Rodney join forces—Dispositions to intercept French convoy—The failure to intercept the convoy—Comments—De Grasse sails from Fort Royal— His plans—Rodney sails from St. Lucia—The fleets in sight—Battle of the Saints—Movements after the battle —Comments—Hood in chase—Franco-Spanish fleet at Cap Francois—Rodney relieved by Pigot—Pigot sails for New York—Allies threaten Jamaica—Comments.
XXI. EUROPEAN WATERS .
Operations of Grand Fleet—Franco-Spanish concentration —Howe's strategy—Howe sails for third relief of Gibraltar —Minorca garrison capitulates—Final stages of the attack on Gibraltar—Arrival of Howe—The end of the siegeFranco-Spanish fleet appears—Howe accepts action— Failure of Cordova.

INDIAN OCEAN

XXII. INDIA AND SOUTH AFRICA TO THE END OF 1781 .
Brief history of events in India from 1760—Vernon and Tronjolly off Pondicherry—Hughes sails for the East Indies—Johnstone sails for the East Indies—Suffren sails —Battle at Porto Praya—Comments—Suffren reinforces garrison at Cape—Suffren and D'Orves join forces and sail for Coromandel coast—British capture Negapatam.
XXIII. THE INDIAN OCEAN, 1782 AND 1783.
THE FIVE
BATTLES
Hughes takes Trincomalee—Battle of Sadras—Battle of Providien—Battle of Negapatam—Suffren takes Trincomalee—Battle of Trincomalee—Bickerton's reinforcement arrives—Battle of Cuddalore—Comments on the Hughes - Suffren duel.
XXIV. THE PEACE
Preliminary conferences — Change of Government - Shelburne's ministry—Portland's ministry—The terms of the definitive treaties.
XXV. THE CAUSES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE

APPENDICES

INDEX

DIAGRAMMATIC SKETCHES OF NAVAL BATTLES

1. HOWE'S DEFENSIVE LINE AT NEW YORK, 1778
2. BATTLE OF USHANT, JULY 27TH, 1778. . Morning
3. BATTLE OF USHANT, JULY 27TH, 11 A.M.
4. BATTLE OF USHANT, JULY 27TH, 11.30 A.M.
5. BATTLE OF USHANT, JULY 27TH, Evening
6. BATTLE OF GRENADA, JULY 6TH, 1779, Daybreak
7. BATTLE OF GRENADA, JULY 6TH, 1779,Noon
8. BATTLE OF GRENADA, JULY 6TH, 1779, 3 P.M.
9. BATTLE OF MARTINIQUE, APRIL 17TH, 1780 . 8.45 A.M.
10. BATTLE OF MARTINIQUE, APRIL 17TH, 1780 . 12.30 P.M.
11. BATTLE OF ST. LUCIA CHANNEL, MAY 15TH, 1780. Shortly after noon .
12. BATTLE OF ST. LUCIA CHANNEL, MAY 15TH, 1780. 2 P.M.
13. BATTLE OF MONTE CHRISTI, JUNE 29TH, 1780 .
14. BATTLE OF CAPE HENRY, MARCH 16TH, 1781. 1 P.M.
15. BATTLE OF CAPE HENRY, MARCH 16TH, 1781. 2 P.M.
16. BATTLE OFF THE CHESAPEAKE, SEPTEMBER 5TH, 1781. 2.15 P.M.
17. BATTLE OFF THE CHESAPEAKE, SEPTEMBER 5TH, 1781. 3.45 P.M.
18. BATTLE OF ST. KITTS, JANUARY 25TH, 1782.
19. BATTLE OF THE SAINTS, APRIL 9TH, 1782 . 10 A.M.
20. BATTLE OF THE SAINTS, APRIL12TH, 1782 . 6 A.M. . • 338
21. BATTLE OF THE SAINTS, APRIL12TH, 8 A.M. .
22. BATTLE OF THE SAINTS, APRIL12TH, 9.15 A.M.
23. BATTLE OF THE SAINTS, APRIL12TH, Noon
24. BATTLE OF PORTO PRAYA, APRIL 16TH, 1781
25. BATTLE OF SADRAS, FEBRUARY 17TH, 1782
26. BATTLE OF PROVIDIEN, APRIL 12TH, 1782
27. BATTLE OF NEGAPATAM, JULY 6TH, 1782
28. BATTLE OF TRINCOMALEE, SEPTEMBER 3RD, 1782.

In all these sketches the reader Is looking towards north. British ships are white and fly pennants. French ships are black and fly square black flags.

MAPS

  1. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA, 1775 .
    Showing the boundaries of the colonies and the routes taken by the American columns for the attack on Canada.
  2. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA .
    Showing the routes taken by the armies of Howe and Carleton in the campaign of 1776.
  3. PLAN OF CHARLESTON HARBOUR .
    Illustrating the operations of Clinton and Parker in 1776 and those of Clinton and Arbuthnot in 1780.
  4. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA .
    Showing the route taken by the army of Burgoyne in the campaign of 1777.
  5. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA .
    Showing the routes taken by the armies of Howe and Clinton in the campaign of 1777.
  6. MAP OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC
    Showing the principal naval bases, routes of ships to and from the Indies and positions of the naval battles in European waters.
  7. MAP OF THE WEST INDIAN ISLANDS, 1776 .
  8. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA .
    Showing the route taken by the army of Clinton and the operations of Lord Howe's fleet in 1778.
  9. PLAN OF RHODE ISLAND .
    Illustrating D'Estaing's operations in 1778.
  10. MAP OF THE LESSER ANTILLES .
    Illustrating the five phases of the " Battle for the West Indian Islands."
  11. MAP OF ST. LUCIA.
    Illustrating D'Estaing's operations in 1778.
  12. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA AND CENTRAL AMERICA .
    Showing the routes taken by the armies of Clinton and Prevost in the campaign of 1779, and illustrating the operations in Central America in 1779 and 1780.
  13. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA .
    Showing the routes taken by the armies of Clinton and Cornwallis in the campaign of 1780.
  14. MAP OF NORTH AMERICA .
    Showing the route taken by the army of Cornwallis in the campaign of 1781.
  15. MAP OF INDIA .
    Illustrating the operations of the rival fleets 1778-1783.

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